Short-term disability insurance
is similar to sick leave in that it covers an illness, injury, or other medical condition that is a temporary situation. For example, maternity leave and other pregnancy-related time off falls under the category of short-term disability.
Long-term disability insurance, on the other hand, can last years, depending on the situation. Issues related to joint and muscle disorders, back problems, and diseases like cancer are some of the leading causes of long-term disability, and insurance policies can cover them for specified amounts of time (e.g. five years).